Traffic Calming

Among the objectives of a traffic engineering assignment will often be traffic calming. The generally accepted definition of traffic calming as provided by the Institute of Transportation Engineers (ITE) is "the combination of mainly physical measures that reduce the negative effects of motor vehicle use, alter driver behavior and improve conditions for non-motorized street users." GRA has undertaken traffic calming assignments through a variety of measures.

• Raised crosswalks (right) provide another form of traffic calming. 

• On Atwells Avenue in Providence, RI, (bottom left) GRA prepared plans for safety improvements that include curb extensions (bump-outs), signing and pavement markings designed to heighten awareness of the motorist to pedestrian activity and potential pedestrian conflicts on this busy arterial street.

• The Arctic Circulator project (bottom right) in West Warwick, RI, incorporated curb extensions, sometimes referred to as bump-outs, to reduce the street width and the length of the pedestrian crossing at key locations.